Jacques en die Schonenberg skat

Op 20 November 1722 strand die skip die Schonenberg by Kaap Agulhas. Daar rondom het 'n hele legende van 'n komplot en die skat van Vergelegen ontwikkel waarby 'n Jacob Malan, eienaar van een van die vier dele van Vergelegen, na bewering betrokke sou gewees het.

Schonenberg - Rosenthal/Green

Die storie van die Schonenberg komplot en die skat van Vergelegen word volgens (1) deur Eric Rosenthal in sy boek The Hinges Creaked beskryf. 'n Verdere beskrywing kom daarvolgens voor in die South African Beachcomber van Green. Hieronder volg 'n kopie daarvan soos gevind by www.shipwreck.co.za:

"On November 21, 1722, a group of men were sitting on a hillside near Cape Agulhas, the most southerly promontory in Africa, looking intently out to sea. Beside them lay a large heap of timber and firewood, stacked together to withstand the gale and waiting to be lit at a moment's notice. They were Hendrik Klopper, Jacob van der Heiden and Jacob Malan - all of them farmers in the Hottentots Holland district of the Cape.

Klopper, whose style of dress betokened considerable prosperity, was the owner of one of the most famous estates in South Africa, still well known today - Vergelegen, near the present town of Somerset West. Until a few years earlier it had belonged to Governor Willem Adrian van der Stel, who built himself a home there and carried on agricultural operations on a scale so vast that they finally brought about his downfall. Yet though Vergelegen had been sold, the farm and buildings of the Dutch East India Company's over-ambitious proconsul remained, and many visitors continued to come in quest of hospitality.

The three farmers - Klopper, van der Heiden and Malan - had trekked painfully from Vergelegen, through the still roadless kloofs, across the Palmiet River, the Bot River, through Soetendal's Vlei and Uilekraal to the foreland, where they encamped. As they now sat watching on this warm November day, a wave of excitement ran through them. Far out to sea, but plainly visible, was the ship they were waiting for, the Schonenberg  . Immediately they applied the tinder which lay ready, and a great column of flame and smoke shot into the sky. Again and again they let it burn for a moment and then damped it down with green branches, to make plain that it was a signal. After a few hours the embers burnt low, but by then they could see the Schonenberg   had already come much nearer.

On board the Indiaman there was much activity. The men were high in spirits for, after a voyage of several months from Batavia, they expected to be in the roads of Table Bay before another two days were over. Here they would find fresh water, fresh food in place of the salt meat they lived on, women and letters from home. Yet Captain Albertus van Soest, as he sat on the poop, was preoccupied. On the face of it there seemed no reason for concern. This was the eighth round trip which the Schonenberg   had made to India. She had a valuable cargo; the voyage had gone very smoothly; the weather had been excellent. Why then should he be so restless and keep pointing his spyglass to a particular point on the distant coast? A column of smoke shot into the blue sky and then died away. It reappeared and vanished once more. After three or four times Captain van Soest turned to the first mate and ordered him to turn the head of the ship directly towards the shore.

"Sir," spluttered the man, "we will be wrecked."

"Mind your own business," bellowed the Captain, and slowly, hesitantly, the mate brought the wheel round. Drunk or sober, his Captain had to be obeyed. A pleasant breeze blew from the south-east, and the companion vessel, the Anna Maria which had caught up with them on the way from Batavia, continued without trouble to Table Bay.

It took the crew a while to realise what was happening. Then they shouted in consternation. A line of surf ran straight ahead of the Schonenberg  . Van Soest seemed possessed; he raged and swore until one by one his terrified sailors fell into silence. At midday on November 22 the Indiaman came ashore. Fortunately it was a sandy stretch and the crew waded safely to the beach. After drying himself the Captain sat down to write a letter to Governor de Chavonnes at the Castle in Cape Town. Putting three of the mates in charge of the greater part of the crew, he ordered them to take the message overland. "Be careful of wild animals," he said , handing out arms for protection. He himself remained behind with the book-keeper of the ship, Paulus August, and twenty of the men.

None of the advance party had any wish to stay in the wilderness, and when Captain van Soest told them he would see to the salvage of the cargo, they were glad to take their departure. Within a few hours they were on trek overland while the men on the beach set to work salving the cargo. They had been carefully picked and the glances they cast each other were full of meaning. By now Paulus August, the book-keeper, and his twenty sailors knew that the wreck was due to something more than chance. With surprising promptitude Klopper, Malan and van der Heiden arrived from their look-out on Cape Agulhas and offered to help. They were greeted with a show of pleased surprise and joined in bringing ashore the goods from the wreck. Gear was erected between the ship and the shore and wagons with oxen in-spanned arrived from Vergelegen. All through the night and the following day Klopper, Malan, van der Heiden, van Soest and the trusted members of the crew were busy conveying to the beach bales of silk, packages of pepper, costly oriental woods, boxes full of Eastern silver, ornaments of gold and precious stones. On the beach Captain van Soest ordered his sailors to reassemble. Each received a substantial pack of treasure and was told to make his way to Cape Town as quickly as possible.

Their hurry seemed justified, for the following day a heavy south-easter set in and so knocked about the Schonenberg   that she began to break up. But by then the Captain with the three farmers, was on the way to Vergelegen, accompanied by the heavily laden wagons.

Governor de Chavonnes was more than astonished when the first party of castaways gave him news of the shipwreck and his surprise grew to suspicion when, a few days later, the remaining twenty sailors reached Cape Town. Within a few hours they were squandering the gold and silver they had received, and were talking in their cups about the queer goings-on upon the Agulhas coast. Even though van Soest was a personal friend, His Excellency asked questions, and before long other odd facts emerged.

On his previous visits to the Cape, it was recalled, van Soest had frequently visited Vergelegen, where he had become intimate with four farmers who had divided up Willem Adrian van der Stel's original estate - Barend Gildenhuis, Hendrik Klopper, Jacob Malan and Jacob van der Heiden. Information reached the ears of His Excellency that the Captain had been engaged in smuggling American tobacco and old rum to Vergelegen, from where it had been distributed. Even nastier details came to light. One mate of the Schonenberg  , who knew about the unlawful traffic, had quarreled with the Captain and threatened to tell the Governor. He disappeared in the night, and the next morning his corpse, with a heavy cut in the forehead, was found floating near the jetty. "He fell overboard during the watch," was all van Soest had to say.

The Captain and the farmers arrived at Vergelegen from the wreck. No more secrecy was observed; indeed Klopper spoke quite openly of the manner in which, as far back as the end of December in the previous year,1721, he and van Soest had worked out a plot to run ashore the Schonenberg  when next she returned from the Indies, and to plunder her treasure.

Now they were at Vergelegen homestead. Coloured slaves were ordered to unload the wagons, and after nightfall three or four of them were told off by Klopper to carry the gold and silver and precious stones into the orchard behind the house. Presently the rest of the party heard shots. Not one of the slaves returned alive.

Captain van Soest now felt it high time, if he was to allay suspicion, that he must go to Cape Town. Within a few days he arrived there. Governor de Chavonnes was not as affable as usual, and insisted that the wreck should be immediately investigated under official supervision. Meneer Valk, the Harbour Master, and Jan de la Fontein, Senior Merchant, accompanied van Soest on his return trek by wagon to Agulhas.

As they had expected, the Schonenberg   had broken up and there was no evidence of what had gone wrong. Some weeks later, in January, 1723, the Governor, still dissatisfied, sent a second group of investigators to the wreck, this time under a Captain Albertus, but now there was nothing left but the hulk, which had been mysteriously burnt to the water's edge.

For several months the plotters at Vergelegen kept quiet and carefully avoided going near the orchard. Only Klopper knew the exact spot where the treasure lay, and he was often enveloped in deep gloom. During March, 1723, however, it was felt they must do something with their loot. Captain van Soest was still at the Cape, though hoping to return shortly to Rotterdam, whence he came.

One evening they all met under the camphor trees near the homestead. Paulus August, the book-keeper, was in high spirits. It was now only a question of taking up the treasure and dividing it. One thing seemed strange - the heavy silence surrounding Klopper. Finally van Soest burst out: "Hendrik, what ails thee, man? Hast thou seen a ghost, or do thy riches weigh so heavily on thee that thou canst not spare a word?"

Still Klopper said no word and stared hard past the camphor trees at the bushes which hid the grisly secret. Then Paulus August said: "This is poor cheer to give us after a hard day's trek."

Van Soest sat up and put his hand on the farmer's shoulder. Still he gave no reply. The others noticed that his legs seemed weak. His knees shook as he rose and slowly began to stumble towards the bushes. By now everyone was silent. They saw Klopper walk to the place where he had killed the slaves. A moment later there was a shot and as they rushed up, they saw him lying dead.

How had he died? A slave was seen running out of Vergelegen homestead, but there was no sign of a wound. The killer must be among the bushes, and he should have been easily recognisable against the sand-hills. For hours they searched, but found no one. All through the night Paulus August and the slaves kept watch. Finally they buried Klopper's body and sent to Cape Town to report what had happened.

Where was the treasure? They were within a few yards of it and at first searched casually. Presently they realised they could not locate the spot and that the only man who knew was dead. The officials from the Castle sent to arrest them, found them still at work with picks and shovels, oblivious of their personal safety.

Governor de Chavonnes was merciless. They were put on trial at the Castle and the sentences were of the barbarity one expected in the early eighteenth century. Captain van Soest was first broken on the wheel and then strangled; Van der Heiden and Malan were deported in chains to Batavia. There are no records to tell us what became of Paulus August, but probably he was given the same treatment as the Captain.

The search for the treasure continued, yet although the garden and grounds of Vergelegen were ransacked, all that was ever recovered was a heavy chest, and that was empty. After nearly 250 years, the fate of the treasure remains unsolved."

In another account of this story written by Lawrence G. Green, it was said that the Schonenberg   was carrying gold, jewels and bars of silver. Other cargo consisted of pepper, eastern timber, bales of silk and exquisitely transportable boxes of gold and precious stones, silver and ornaments.

In this report it seems as if the conspirators buried most of the valuables at Vergelegen and handed over the rest to Governor de Chavonnes to allay suspicion.

When the Governor became suspicious after learning that seaman had been spending gold and silver in the taverns, he sent Valk, the Harbour Master, and Jan de la Fonteine, senior merchant, to the wreck to see whether anything more could be salved. They found only the bones of the Schonenberg  , for she had been set on fire and burnt down to the waterline. So the Governor ordered the arrest of Captain van Soest and his accomplices. According to one authority, the crime preyed on the mind of Hendrik Klopper, who committed suicide. Captain van Soest was sentenced to death and broken on the wheel. Van der Heyden and Malan were deported in chains to Batavia. They declared that only Klopper knew where the treasure had been buried. As they remained unshaken in this statement after being tortured, the Governor reluctantly accepted their word and ordered them to be deported to Batavia in chains. The missing treasure of the Schonenberg   remained in its hiding place on Vergelegen.

No doubt the farm was searched again and again. In a report of the Cape Argus of October, 1859, the writer stated that a ship's bell, engraved with the name Schonenberg   and a copper kettle had been found near the homestead by labourers digging up roots of old trees. The bell was to be seen on the farm of Mr. P. van der Byl at Eerste River. According to the reporter, the farmer who buried the treasure, had been assisted by a servant named Nicolaas Niemaan and a slave boy. The slave boy had been shot. Niemaan had run away, crossed the colonial frontier and lived among the blacks for many years. Before he died Niemaan had met a white man named Verley and told him that the treasure had been buried in the orchard behind the Vergelegen homestead.

Thus the search in 1859 recorded in the Cape Argus was based on Verley's information. The reporter saw a hole fifteen feet deep, but nothing had been found.

Schonenberg - Peggy Heap

Die storie van die Schonenberg word deur Peggy Heap (2) as volg beskryf:

The wreck of the Schonenberg at Cape Agulhas took place in 1722. The historian Theal accords this event very few words: 'On the 20th November, ... the Schonenberg, homeward bound with a valuable cargo was run ashore near Cape Agulhas in broad daylight and in fine weather through the culpable negligence of hers officers. The ship broke up, but all on board got safely to shore.' Certain details, however recorded in the Company Journal tell of the link between the Schonenberg and the Hottentots Holland.

The first inkling of the disaster was received by the authorities at the Castle when the ship, Anna Maria, arrived in Table Bay with the news that 'its consort Schonenberg has been wrecked at Cape Agulhas, but could not give assistance, the sea not allowing it'.

The governor, Lieut-Colonel Maurits de Chavonnes, immediately sent officials to the scene of the disaster. On reaching Hottentots-Holland they discovered a large party from the wrecked ship, 'the two mates, third officer and eighty five men' at Onverwacht, the farm of Mr Philip Morkel.

In an attempt to reach de Kaap they had struggled as far as the Hottentots Holland, keeping themselves alive on the march by 'eating grass and the flesh of a sea-cow' (Hippopotamus). They reported that the captain and a party of twenty had remained at the wreck and were without supplies or water. The Company officials continued on their way to Agulhas with what speed they could make. However, by the time they reached the wreck the captain's party had already left. They had been rescued by farmers of the Hottentots Holland who, on hearing of their plight, had journeyed with their wagons over the mountains to Cape Agulhas. The officials - as they subsequently reported to the governer -  had found the Schonenberg 'in a very bad way', and breaking up fast. There was, they added, 'no chance of saving anything'.

The large group of over eighty-five famished and exhausted survivors were fed and succoured meanwhile by Mr Philip Morkel. When their health had been sufficiently restored, he sent them on to the Kaap in his wagons.

The entire ship's company of the Schonenberg eventually returned to Holland where the captain and the helmsmen had to appear before a Court of Justice. The helmsmen were acquited, but the captain was found guilty of careless handling of his vessel and dismissed.

The survivors who had been aided by Philip Morkel composed a 'Liefde-Krans' (Ode of Praise) which they had printed and sent out to him. In archaic and flowery Dutch they extolled his virtues and expressed their appreciation of what he had done for them in their extremity after their march 'door 't wilde Africa', ('through the wilds of Africa'). The original of this 'Liefde-Krans' is in the Cape Government Archives, but several members of the Morkel family have copies of it in their homes, a treasured memento of the first Morkel to settle in the country.

From the involvement  of the farmers of the Hottentots Holland in the wreck of the Schonenberg a legend has arisen. It concerns valuables said to have been removed from the ship by the captain's party, brought with them into Hottentots Holland and buried on the farm Vergelegen. However, all knowledge of treasure was subsequently denied by those concerned. Nor, so runs the tale, was it ever discovered.

Several people have searched for this legendary hoard, but the only treasure known to have been unearthed at Vergelegen was dug up behind the old slave quarters during the latter half of the last century. This was a large straightsided copper pot - of a type said to have been used on East Indiamen for the boiling of rice - about 2 feet high, 1 foot in diameter and with large ring handles. Inside it was a ship's bell - of which all trace has been lost - but the copper pot was purchased at the Theunissen sale of 1899 by Mrs F. Strangeman and is today owned by her daughter, Mrs W. Sleigh, of the farm Erin Vale which adjoins Vergelegen.

Theal

Die geskiedskrywer Theal het slegs die volgende te rapporteer oor die Schonenberg se stranding:

"On the 20th of November of this disastrous year the Schoonberg, homeward bound with a valuable cargo, was ran ashore near Cape Agulhas in broad daylight and in fine weather, through the culpable negligence of her officers. The ship broke up, but all on board got safely to shore."

Dus volgens Theal het daar niks opspraakwekkend rondom die Schonenberg gebeur nie.

Oor die verdeling van Vergelegen skryf Theal as volg:

"Vergelegen was divided into four farms, which were sold by auction in October 1709. It was found on measurement to contain six hundred and thirteen morgen. The large dwelling house was broken down, and the material was sold for Van der Stel's benefit. The other buildings were taken over by the Company for 625., though the materials of which they were constructed were appraised at a much higher sum. The four farms brought 1,695. at public sale, the purchasers being Barend Gildenhuis, Jacob van der Heiden, Jacob Malan, and the widow of Gerrit Cloete."

Dus die vier dele van Vergelegen is deur Barend Gildenhuys, Jacob van der Heiden, Jacob Malan en die weduwee van Gerrit Cloete gekoop maar volgens Rosenthal is die vier dele deur Barend Gildenhuis, Hendrik Klopper, Jacob Malan en Jacob van der Heiden gekoop. Dus was Hendrik Klopper nie een van die kopers van Vergelegen nie en klop Rosenthal se feite nie hier nie.

Vergaderings van die politieke raad

Die Politieke Raad het in die volgende vergaderings onder andere die Schonenberg bespreek:

26 November 1722

30 November 1722

13 Desember 1722

15 Desember 1722

5 Januarie 1723

7 Januarie 1723

9 Februarie 1723

23 Februarie 1723

16 Maart 1723

11 Mei 1723

8 Junie 1723

4 Januarie 1724

 

Teenstrydighede

Daar is 'n hele paar teenstrydighede tussen Heap en Rosenthal/Green:

  • Volgens Heap het die Anna Maria waargeneem dat die Schonenberg strand maar volgens Rosenthal het die Anna Maria nie daarvan geweet nie en bloot voort gevaar na die Kaap.
  • Volgens Heap verneem die goewerneur van die stranding vanaf die Anna Maria maar volgens Rosenthal verneem die goewerneur dit toe die eerste manskappe van die Schonenberg die Kaap bereik.
  • Volgend Heap is die kaptein uiteindelik terug na Holland waar hy verhoor, skuldig bevind en ontslaan is maar volgens Rosenthal is hy deur goewerneur Chavonnes op die wiel gebreek en verwurg.
  • Volgens Heap is al vyf en tagtig manskappe op Onverwacht versorg maar volgens Rosenthal is die kaptein na Vergelegen geneem en is die oorblywend twintig manskappe na die Kaap gestuur.

Die rolspelers

Die feite rondom die rolspelers in die storie is soos volg:

Barend Gildenhuisz

Barend Gildenhuisz is in 1682 gedoop en trou in 1710 met Anna Margaretha siek. Na die verdeling van Vergelegen in 1709 het Barend Vergelegen gekoop. Sy laaste kind is op 22 Maart 1721 gedoop. Op 1 Maart 1722 trou Michael Otto met sy weduwee, Anna, en kom so in besit van Vergelegen. Dit beteken dat Barend voor Maart 1722 moes gesterf het. Otto sterf in 1743 op Somerset-Wes. Michael was berug vir sy wreedheid teenoor sy slawe. Hy is verskeie kere deur die regering daaroor gestraf en uiteindelik het hy die plaas en sy vrou verlaat vir 'n drankwinkel in Kaapstad waar hy hom aan drank oorgegee het. In 1751 het Jurgen Radyn die plaas gekoop. Dis onduidelik uit (2) se beskrywing of daar ander eienaars tussen Otto en Radyn was. Dit wil egter voorkom of Otto ten minste 'n aantal jare op Vergelegen was en dus in November 1722 tydens die stranding van die Schonenberg die eienaar van Vergelegen was.

Hendrik Klopper

Soos reeds gesien was Barend Gildenhuisz die oorspronklike koper van Vergelegen en nie Klopper soos Rosenthal beweer nie. Tydens die stranding van die Schonenberg was Michiel Otto die eienaar van Verlegen en ook nie Klopper soos Rosenthal beweer nie. Inteendeel Hendrik Klopper het sover vasgestel kan word nooit Vergelegen op enige stadium besit nie. Volgens (3)  was die enigste Hendrik Klopper wat op daardie stadium oud genoeg was, Hendrik Frederik Klopper wat in 1713 van Hoorn in die Kaap aangekom het. Daarvolgens was hy 'n smid aan die Kaap. Sy laaste kind is in 1733 gedoop wat beteken dat hy op die vroegste in 1732 kon gesterf het. Volgens Rosenthal is Klopper in die omgewing van Maart 1723 vermoor of het selfmoord gepleeg. Dus klop Rosenthal se feite ten opsigte van Hendrik Klopper nie.

Jacobus van der Heyden

Jacobus van der Heyden, die swaer van Barend Gildenhuisz, koop die deel van Vergelegen ten noord-weste van die Lourensrivier en wat vandag deel van Lourensford vorm. Die deel het waarskynlik na een van sy twee oudste seuns oorgegaan. Volgens (6) was Jacobus en Beatrix Louw op 28 Julie 1726 getuies by die doop van Petrus Louw op Stellenbosch. Dus kon hy nie na Batavia verban gewees het soos Rosenthal beweer nie. Dis moontlik dat sy oudste seun, Jacobus, in 1724 in besit van die plaas was want hy trou in 1717 met Aletta Nobel. Sy eerste kind na 1722 is in 1723 gedoop en die laaste kind is in die omgewing van 1734 gedoop. Dus kon ook hy nie na Batavia verban gewees het nie. Dus klop Rosenthal se feite rondom Jacobus van Heyden nie.

Jacques Malan

Volgens Rosenthal was 'n Jacob Malan betrokke by die komplot. Jacob of Jacobus is die Hollandse vorm van die Franse voornaam Jacques dus kon die persoon Jacob/Jacobus of Jacques Malan gewees het. Rosenthal stel dit baie duidelik dat Jacob Malan een van die vier dele van Vergelegen gekoop het. Dit kan slegs Jacques Malan, die stamvader wees want hy het een van die dele gekoop wat Morgenster geword het. Jacques Malan was diaken vanaf 1716 en ouderling vanaf 1724 by die Stellenbosse gemeente. Indien Jacques betrokke was by 'n hele ondersoek soos Rosenthal beweer sou die kerkraad hoogs waarskynlik sy posisie as diaken opgehef het en hy sou beslis nie ouderling geword het nie. Daar kan ook gewys word dat Jacques na 1722 verskeie grondtransaksies aangegaan het. Volgens die Stellenbosch gemeente se kasboek is hy in 1742 in graf nommer 8 in die Stellenbosse kerk begrawe. Volgens Rosenthal is Jacob Malan na Batavia verban maar dis duidelik dat Jacques Malan na 1722 nog teenwoordig en aktief in die Kaap was. Dus strook Rosenthal se feite nie ten opsigtige van Jacques Malan nie.

Die Jacob Malan waarna Rosenthal verwys kon ook Jacobus die oudste seun van Jacques Malan gewees het. Jacobus is in 1700 gebore en sou dus in 1722 oud genoeg gewees het om betrokke te kon gewees het. Jacobus is egter voor 1710 oorlede aangesien Jacques en Isabeau se 7de kind, wat in 1710 gebore is, weer Jacobus genoem is. Dus kon hy nie betrokke gewees het by die komplot nie.

Jan de la Fontaine

Volgens Rosenthal was hy die hoofkoopman. Daar kon sover nog nie vasgestel word of die feite rondom Jan de la Fontaine strook met Rosenthal/Green nie.

Valk

Volgens Rosenthal was hy die hawemeester. Daar kon sover nog nie vasgestel word of die feite rondom Valk strook met Rosenthal/Green nie.

Opsommend

Dis duidelik dat daar 'n hele paar teenstrydighede met Rosenthal se feite is. Ook klop sy feite rondom Hendrik Klopper, Jacques van der Heyden en Jacob Malan nie. Die blote feit dat die kaptein van die skip en die boere 'n komplot sou gesmee het om op 'n spesifieke dag die skip te strand en te roof is hoogs onwaarskynlik. In daardie dae was dit baie onseker wanneer 'n skip 'n spesifieke plek gaan bereik. Skepe se vertrek kon maklik met 'n maand vertraag geraak het. Afhangend van die weer langs die pad kon die skip voorspoedig of teëspoedig gevaar het. Die gevolg was dat 'n skip maklik eers 'n maand of meer later as verwag op 'n spesifieke plek kon aankom. Dat die skip goud, silwer en juwele sou gedra het is eweneens onwaarskynlik. Om sulke items binne die klein gemeenskap van destyds te verkoop het sonder om agterdog te wek is ook onwaarskynlik. Rosenthal en Green se storie lees eerder soos 'n roman as historiese feite en berus duidelik op legende soos Heap tereg uitwys. Theal se stilswye is ook verdoemend vir die legende. Die boere het slagoffers in die storie geword bloot vanweë die feit dat die skat op Vergelegen sou begrawe gewees het en hulle die dele van Vergelegen gekoop het en noodwendig deel van die komplot moes wees. Die skat van Vergelegen is soos die sogenaamde Krugermiljoene wat nooit bestaan het nie maar waarna mense nou nog soek.

Die feit dat Jacques Malan betrokke was by die komplot rondom die Schonenberg is totalle verdigsel en daar is geen bewyse daarvoor nie. Tewens die meeste van die storie wat deur Rosenthal en Green vertel word is verdigsel en word nie deur die feite gestaaf nie.

Bronne

1. shipwreck.co.za. The Schonenberg 1722 [Aanlyn]. Beskikbaar: http://www.shipwreck.co.za/schonenberg.html [2011, Oktober 30]. Die bronne word aangegee as:

  • Rosenthal, Eric. The Hinges Creaked.
  • Green, Lawrence G. South African Beachcomber.

2. Heap, Peggy. The Story of Hottentots Holland, 1993. Goodwood: National Book Printers.

3. Suid-Afrikaanse Geslagsregisters, Volumes 2, 3, 4 en 7.

4. Theal, Georg: History of South Africa Under the Administration of the Dutch East India Company, 1652 to 1795 (1897) [Aanlyn]. Beskikbaar: http://www.archive.org/details/historysouthafr08theagoog [2011, November 7].

5. Grafte in die Moederkerk [Aanlyn]. Beskikbaar: http://www.heemkring.org.za/Kerkgrafte.htm [2011, November 7].

6. First Fifty Years project [Aanlyn]. Beskikbaar: http://www.e-family.co.za/ffy/g6/p6957.htm [2011, November 7].